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2020年考研英语二阅读答案完整版(万题库版)

来源:万题库 2019-12-23 10:58:58 要考试,上考试吧! 考研万题库
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  Section II Reading Comprehension Part A

  第一篇:

  Rats and other animals need to be highly at tuned to social from others so that can identify friends to cooperate with and enemies to avoid. To find out if this extends to non-living beings, Loleh Quinn at the University of California, San Diego, and her colleagues tested whether rats can detect social signals from robotic rats.

  They housed eight adult rats with two types of robotic rat-one social and one asocial-for 5 our days. The robots rats were quite minimalist, resembling a chunkier version of a computer mouse with wheels-to move around and colorful markings.

  During the experiment, the social robot rat followed the living rats around, played with the same toys, and opened caged doors to let trapped rats escape. Meanwhile, the asocial robot simply moved forwards and backwards and side to side.

  Next, the researchers trapped the robots in cages and gave the rats the opportunity to release them by pressing a lever.

  Across 18 trials each, the living rats were 52 percent more likely on average to set social robot free than the asocial one. This suggests that the rats perceived the social robot as a genuine social being. They may have bonded more with the social robot because it displayed behavious like communal exploring and playing. This could lead to the rats better remembering having freed it earlier, and wanting the robot to return the favour when they get trapped, says Quinn.

  The readiness of the rats to befriend the social robot was surprising given its minimal design. The robot was the same size as a regular rat but resembled a simple plastic box on wheels. “We’d assumed we’d have to give it a moving head and tail, facial features, and put a scene on it to make it smell like a real rat, but that wasn’t necessary,” says Janet Wiles at the University of Queensland in Australia, who helped with the research.

  The finding shows how sensitive rats are to social cues, even when they come from basic robots. Similarly, children tend to treat robots as if they are fellow beings, even when they display only simple social signals. “We humans seem to be fascinated by robots, and it turns out other animals are too,” says Wiles.

  21.【题干】Quinn and her colleagues conducted a test to see if rats can _____.

  【选项】

  A.pickup social signals from non-living rats

  B.distinguish a friendly rat from a hostile one

  C.attain sociable traits through special training

  D.send out warming messages to their fellow

  【答案】A

  【估分】点击下载考研万题库 在线估分

  22.【题干】What did the social robot do during the experiment?

  【选项】

  A.It followed the social robot.

  B.It played with some toys.

  C.It set the trapped Tats free.

  D.It moved around alone.

  【答案】C

  【估分】点击下载考研万题库 在线估分

  23.【题干】According to Quinn, the rats released the social robot because they _____.

  【选项】

  A.tried to practice a means of escape

  B.expected it to do the same in return

  C.wanted to display their intelligence

  D.considered that an interesting game

  【答案】B

  【估分】点击下载考研万题库 在线估分

  24.【题干】James Wiles notes that rats _____.

  【选项】

  A.can remember other rat’s facial features

  B.differentiate smells better than sizes

  C.respond more to cations than to looks

  D.can be scared by a plastic box on wheels

  【答案】C

  【估分】点击下载考研万题库 在线估分

  25.【题干】It can be learned from the text that rats _____.

  【选项】

  A.appear to be adaptable to new surroundings

  B.are more socially active than other animals

  C.behave differently from children in socializing

  D.are more sensitive to social cues than expected

  【答案】D

  【估分】点击下载考研万题库 在线估分

  第二篇:

  Why CEOs Actually Deserve Their Gazillion-Dollar Salaries

  By Tyler Cowen

  April 11, 2019

  IDEAS

  Cowen is Holbert L harris chair of economics at George Mason University and the author most recently of Big Business: A Love Letter to an American Anti-Hero.

  It is fashionable today to bash Big Business. And there is one issue on which the many critics agree: CEO pay. We hear that CEOs are paid too much (or too much relative to workers), or that they rig others' pay, or that their pay is insufficiently related to positive outcomes. But the more likely truth is CEO pay is largely caused by intense competition.

  It is true that CEO pay has gone up-top ones may make 300 times the pay of typical workers on average, and since the mid-1970s, CEO pay for large publicly traded American corporations has, by varying estimates, gone up by about 500%. The typical CEO of a top American corporation-from the 350 largest such companies--now makes about $18.9 million a year.

  While individual cases of overpayment definitely exist, in general, the determinants of CEO pay are not so mysterious and not so mired in corruption.

  In fact, overall CEO compensation for the top companies rises pretty much in lockstep with the value of those companies on the stock market.

  The best model for understanding the growth of CEO pay, though, is that of limited CEO talent in a world where business opportunities for the top firms are growing rapidly. The efforts of America s highest-earning 1% have been one of the more dynamic elements of the global economy. It's not popular to say, but one reason their pay has gone up so much is that CEOs really have upped their game relative to many other workers in the U.S. economy.

  Today's CEO, at least for major American firms, must have many more skills than simply being able to run the company CEOs must have a good sense of financial markets and maybe even how the company should trade in them. They also need better public relations skills than their predecessors, as the costs of even a minor slipup can be significant. then there s the fact that large American companies are much more globalized than ever before, with supply chains spread across a larger number of countries. To lead in that system requires know ledge that is fairly mind-boggling.

  There is yet another trend: virtually all major American companies are becoming tech companies, one way or another. An agribusiness company, for instance, may focus on R&D in highly IT-intensive areas such as genome sequencing. Similarly, it is hard to do a good job running the Walt Disney Company just by picking good movie scripts and courting stars; you also need to build a firm capable of creating significant CGi products for animated movies at the highest levels of technical sophistication and with many frontier innovations along the way.

  On top of all of this, major CEOs still have to do the job they have always done--which includes motivating employees, serving as an internal role model, helping to define and extend a corporate culture, understanding the internal accounting and presenting budgets and business plans to the board. Good CEOs are some of the world's most potent creators and have some of the very deepest skills of understanding.

  26.【题干】which of the following has contributed to CEO pay rise? _____

  【选项】

  A.The growth in the number of cooperations

  B.The general pay rise with a better economy

  C.Increased business opportunities for top firms

  D.Close cooperation among leading economics

  【答案】C

  【估分】点击下载考研万题库 在线估分

  27.【题干】Compared with their predecessors, today's CEOs are required to _____.

  【选项】

  A.foster a stronger sense of teamwork

  B.finance more reaserach and development

  C.establish closer ties with tech companies

  D.operate more globalized companies

  【答案】D

  【估分】点击下载考研万题库 在线估分

  28.【题干】CEO pay has been rising since the 1970s despite _____.

  【选项】

  A.continual internal opposition

  B.strict corporate governance

  C.conservative business strategies

  D.repeated governance warnings

  【答案】A

  【估分】点击下载考研万题库 在线估分

  29.【题干】High CEO pay can be justified by the fact that it helps _____.

  【选项】

  A.confirm the status of CEOs

  B.motive inside candidates

  C.boost the efficiency of CEOs

  D.increase corporate value

  【答案】B

  【估分】点击下载考研万题库 在线估分

  30.【题干】The most suitable title for this text would be _____.

  【选项】

  A.CEOs Are Not Overpaid

  B.CEO Pay: Past and Present

  C.CEOs Challenges of Today

  D.CEO Traits: Not Easy to Define

  【答案】A

  【估分】点击下载考研万题库 在线估分

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