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英语国家概况名词解释完整版

 

英语国家概况名词解释(全部版)

英国部分

1.The Thames River

The Thames River is the second largest and most important river in Britain. It is 336 KM long, rising in southwest England and flowing through England and out into the North Sea. It flows rather slowly, which is very favorable for water transportation.

2.The High Landers

They are the Scots who live in the mountainous regions of the Highlands in Northern Scotland. They are a proud, independent and hardy people who maintain their strong cultural identity. They mainly live by farming sheep in mountain areas or fishing on the coasts and islands.

3.The British Commonwealth 英联邦

The British Empire was replaced by the British Commonwealth or the  Commonwealth of Nations in 1931.It is a free association of independent countries that were once colonies of Britain. Member nations are joined together economically and have certain trading arrangements.  The Commonwealth has no special powers. The decision to become a member of the Commonwealth is left to each member nation. At present there are 50 members counties whit in the commonwealth (1991).

是曾为英国殖民地,但现在已经独立构成的自由联合体。

4.Cockney伦敦佬

A cockney is a Londoner who is born within the sound of Bow Bells-the Bells of the church of St. Mary-LeBow in east London

5.Eisteddfodau

festivals of song and dance and poetry celebrated by the welsh through the year. By this way the welsh keep the welsh language and welsh culture alive.

6.The Maritime Climate 海洋性气候

The type of climate when winter is mild, not too cold and summer is cool, not too hot, and it has a steady reliable rainfall throughout the whole year.

7.The English Channel

A Channel that separates Britain from the rest of France is quite narrow. A channel tunnel under this channel was built in 1994 to join the two countries together.

8.The Chunnel英吉利海峡隧道

In 1985 the British government and French government decided to build a channel tunnel, which is called “Chunnel”, under the Straits of Dover so that England and France could be joined together by road. The Chunnel was open to traffic in May 1994.

9.“pea soup” fogs伦敦雾

the famous “pea soup” fogs were thick heavy yellow fogs of London and  other cities seldom occur any more.

厚的\重的\黄色的雾气

10.British isles

The British Isles is made up of two large islands and hundreds of small ones. The two large islands are Great Britain and Ireland.

11.Stonehenge: 巨石阵

It is a circular group of large standing stones on Salisbury Plain, Wiltshire, regarded as one of the most important monuments纪念碑 of its kind in Europe, and very popular with visitors.

12.Thomas becket:托马斯

he was English churchman and statesman. he became Chancellor of England under Henry II in 1155.he was appointed Archibishop ofCanterbury in 1162.

13.Geoffrey Chaucer

He was an important English poet in the fourteenth century. His best known is The Canterbury Tales, which describes a group of pilgrims travelling to Canterbury to visit Thomas Becket’s tomb坟墓. Because he was the first important English poet to write in English. He has been known as the “Father of English Poetry”.

14.Joan of arc:圣女贞德

she was a national heroine of France during the hundred year’s war,she successfully led the france to drive the English out of france.

15.lollards:罗拉德派

they were poor priests and traveling preachers who were john wyclif’s followers.they played an important role in the mental preparations for the peasant uprising of 1381.they preaching the equality of men before god.

16.The Puritans清教徒

The Puritans were wealthy, well-educated gentlemen. They wanted to purify the Church of England and threatened with religious persecution, the Puritans leaders saw the New world as the a refuge provided by God for those He meant to save.

17.Julius Caesar

He was a great Roman general.In 55BC and 54BC,he invaded Britain twice.Because of the resistence of the British  people,he withdrew with hostages and prisoners.That's the beginning of the Roman invasion. 带着人质和俘虏撤退。

18.The Hardrian's Wall

It was one of two great walls built by the Romans to keep the Picts out of the area they had conquered.

由罗马人修建,把皮克特人挡在已征服的地区之外。

19.Heptarchy七王国

During the Anglo-Saxon's time,Britain was divided into many kingdoms,among which there were seven principal kingdoms of Kent,Essex,Sussex,Wessex,East Anglia,Mercia and Northumbria.They were  given the name of Heptarchy.

20.St.Augustine

In 597,Pope Gregory I sent St.Augustine to England to convert the English People to Christianity.He was very successful in converting the king and the nobility.He was the first archbishop of Canterbury.

教皇,格里高力一世派圣奥古斯丁到英格兰去使英格兰人皈依基督教。

21.Witan 贤人会议

Witan was the council or meeting of the wisemen.It was created by the Anglo-Saxons to advise the king.It's the basis of the Privy Council which still exists today.

22.Alfred the Great 

Alfred was a strong king of Wessex. He defeated the Danes and reached a friendly agreement with them. He founded a strong fleet and is known as "The father of the British navy". He reorganized the Saxon army, making it more efficient. He also translated books and established schools. All this earned him the title "Alfred the Great".

23.William the Conqueror 威廉征服

William was Duke of Normandy. He landed his army in Oct.1066 and defeated king Harold. Then he was crowned king of England on Christmas Day the same year. He established a strong Norman government and the feudal system in England.

建立了封建制度

24.The battle of Hastings

In 1066,King Edward died with no heir, the Witan chose Harold as king. William, Duke of Normandy, invaded England. On October 14,the two armies met near Hasting. After a day's battle, Harold was killed and his army completely defeated. So this battle was very important on the way of the Roman conquest.

哈罗德被威廉击败。

25.The Danelaw 施行丹麦法的地区

By the middle of the ninth century, the Vikings and the Danes were posing a threat to the Saxon kingdom of Wessex whose capital was Winchester. Alfred, King of Wessex, was strong enough to defeat the Danes and came to a relatively friendly agreement with them in 879.The Danes gained control of the north and east of England(-"the Danelaw"),while Alfred would rule the rest.

协议规定丹麦人控制英格兰北部和西部(丹麦法区),而阿尔弗雷德统治其他地区。

26.Norman Conquest

The Norman Conquest of 1066 is perhaps the best-known event in English history. William the conqueror confiscated almost all the land and gave it to his Norman followers. He replaced the weak Saxon rule with a strong Norman government. So the feudal system was completely established in England.

27.Domesday Book

It is a book compiled by a group of clerks under the sponsorship of King William the First in 1086. The book was in fact a property record. It was the result of a general survey of England. It recorded the extent, value, state of cultivation, and ownership of the land. It was one of the important measures adopted by William I to establish the full feudal system in England. Today, it is kept in the Public Records Office in London.

28.The Black Death

It is a modern name given to the dearly bubonic plague, an epidemic disease spread through Europe in the fourteenth century particularly in 1348-1349. It came without warning, and without any cue. In England, it killed almost half of the total population, causing far-reaching economic consequences.

29.the divine rights of kings君权神授

the theory that a king rules with the authority of god.

30.The Wars of Roses玫瑰战争(考过)

the name Wars of the Roses was refer to the battles between the House of Lancaster, symbolized by the read rose, and that of York, symbolized by the white, from 1455 to 1485. Henry Tudor, descendant of Duke of Lancaster won victory at Bosworth Fireld in 1485 and put ht country under the rule of the Tudors. From these Wars, English feudalism received its death blow. The great medieval nobility was much weakened.

31.the Spanish Armada:西班牙无敌舰队

the fleet sent to invade England by Philip II of spain in 1588.

32.The Glorious Revolution of 1688光荣革命

In 1685 Charles II died and was succeeded by his brother James II. James was brought up in exile in Europe, was a Catholic. He hoped to rule without giving up his personal religious vies. But England was no more tolerant of a Catholic king in 1688 than 40 years ago. So the English politicians rejected James II, and appealed to a Protestant king, William of Orange, to invade and take the English throne. William landed in England in 1688. The takeover was relatively smooth, with no bloodshed, nor any execution of the king. This was known as the Glorious Revolution.

33.The Gunpowder Plot of 1605火药阴谋案

The Gunpowder Plot of 1605 was the most famous of the Catholic conspiracies. On Nov. 5,1605, a few fanatical Catholics attempted to blow King James and his ministers up in the House of Parliament where Guy Fawkes had planted barrels of gun-powder in the cellars. The immediate result was the execution of Fawkes and his fellow-conspirators and imposition of severe anti-Catholic laws. The long-term result has been an annual celebration on Nov. 5, when a bonfire is lit to turn a guy and a firework display is arranged.

34.Blood Mary血腥玛丽

It is the nickname given to Mary I, the English Queen who succeeded to the throne after Henry VIII. She was a devout Catholic and had so many Protestants burnt to death that she is remembered less by her official title Mary I by her nickname Blood Mary.

35.rotten boroughs衰败选区

a parliamentary constituency which possessed the right to elect members of parliament even though its population had dwindled or was nonexistent.

议会选民区都有权利去选举议会的成员即使它的人口已经下降或是不存在。

36.mrs pankhurst

british suffragette,she founded the women’s social and political union,she died a month before women gained full voting equality with men.

37.the league of nations国际联盟

an international organization of 1920—1946 set up after the first world war to promote international cooperation and to achieve international peace and security.

38.the blitz闪电战

an air attack,particularly the London blitz of 1940—1941.the world is from the german “blitzkrieg”

39.the beatles甲克虫乐队

one of britain’s most influential pop groups,first performing in 1959 in Liverpool.

40.Thatcherism撒切尔主义

The election of 1979 returned the Conservative Party to power and Margaret Thatcher became the first woman prime minister in Britain. Her policies are popularly referred to as state-owned industries, the use of monetarist policies to control inflation, the weaking of trade forces unions, the strengthening of the role of market forces in the economy, and an emphasis on law and order.

包括国有工业私有化,用货币政策控制通货膨胀,削弱工会,加强市场力量在经济中的作用,强调法律与秩序。

41.balance of payments收支平衡

it is the difference between the money from exports and the cost of imports.

42.john Maynard Keynes

he was an influential british economist.Keynes maintained that governments should use fiscal policy to stabilize the economy.

用财政使经济稳定.

43.visible trade and invisible trade

visible trade is trade of goods such as machines while invisible trade is trade of services such as banking and tourism.

44.European union欧盟

EC stands for European community .EC is now called European union(EU).it is an organization of 15 western European countries that promotes cooperation among its members.

45.Monetarist policies(货币主义政策)

Since the American economy was plagued by stagflation, in the early 1980s, the traditional Keynesian theory (传统的凯恩斯理论)was replaced by new monetarist, which sought to fight inflation by increasing supply and reducing demand, On one hand ,taxes were cut to increase economic dynamism. On the other hand, interest rates were raised to reduce the supply of money.

增加供应,减少需求来打击通货膨胀。一方面,减少税收增加经济活力;另一方面,增加利率减少货币支出。

46.The Trade Union Act of 1871工会法

It legalized the trade unions and give financial security. It meant that in law there was no difference between money for benefic purposes and collecting it to support strike action. 使工会合法化,并给其财政保障。这意味着从法律上而言,为福利募集资金与为罢工募集资金毫无二至。

47.Agribusiness农业产业

The new farming has been called “agribusiness”, because it is equipped and managed like an industrial business with a set of inputs into the processes which occur on the farm and outputs or products which leave the farm

48.British disease英国病

The term “British disease” is now often used to characterize Britain’s economic decline.

49.Constitutional monarchy君主立宪制

It is a political system that has been practised in Britain since the Glorious revolution of 1688. According to this system, the Constitution is superior to the Monarch. In law, the Monarch has many supreme powers, but in practice, the real power of monarchy has been greatly reduced and today the Queen acts solely on the advice of her ministers. She reigns but does not rule. The real power lies in the Parliament, or to be exact, in the House of Commons.

50.Privy Council枢密院

A consultative body of the British monarch. Its origin can be traced back to the times of the Norman Kings. After the Glorious Revolution of 1688, its importance was gradually diminished and replaced by the Cabinet. Today, it is still a consultation body of the British monarch, Its membership is about 400, and includes al Cabinet ministers, the speaker of the House of Commons, the Archbishops of Canterbury and York, and senior British and Commonwealth statesmen.

51.Common law

the traditional unwritten law of England,based on custom and the decisions of judges over a period of years rather than on written laws passed by parliament.

英国的不成文法,以法官的判断和习惯为依据,而不以议会的成文法为依据。

52.the state opening of parliament

the official opening of a new session of parliament,usually at the end of October or beginning of November,or after  a general election.

53.The Civil list 英国王室费(考过)

an annual allowance,approved by parliament,made to the sovereign and members of the royal family for the expense involved in carrying out their public duties. 议会每年一次的津贴补助对君主和皇家成员在行使公共职务时的花费。

54.the civil service公务员(考过)

the body of state officials that help s the government.

55.life peer终身贵族

a person who is given a peerage贵族地位 that is not handed of to his or her descendants,usually as a reward for public service.

56.acquittal无罪裁决

acquittal broadly means that the individual is released or discharged without any further prosecution for the same act or transaction.

是意味着被指控者无罪开释,并再也不可就这件特定罪行被指控。

57.cross-examination

the questioning of a witness,by a party or lawyer other than the one who called the witness,concerning matters about which the witness has testified during direct examination.

58.The Crown Court刑事法庭

A criminal court that deals with the more serious cases and holds sessions in towns throughout England and Wales. It is presided over either by a judge from the High Court of Justice or a local full-time judge.

59.probation缓刑

a scheme whereby a criminal offender is placed under the supervision of a probation officer for a period of between six months(12months in scotland) and three years.

6个月到三年之间。

60.capital punishment死刑

the execution of a criminal by hanging.capital punishment also known as the death penalty.

61.the metropolitan police force

the police force responsible for London,with its headquarters at new Scotland yard.

62.The National Health Service英国国民保健制度(不考了)

It is a very important part of the welfare system in Britain. It is a nationwide organization based on Acts of Parliament. It provides all kinds of free or nearly free medical treatment both in hospital and outside. It is financed mainly by payments by the state out of general taxation. People are not obliged to use this service. The service is achieving its main objectives with outstanding success.

63.national insurance 社会保险

the sum levied on all working people by the state as an insurance against sickness and unemployment.

64.general practitioner(GP)

a doctor who is not a specialist but who has a medical practice in which he treats all illness.

65.social worker

a person employed by a local authority or a voluntary organization to give practical aid and advice to people in need.

66.the salvation army

a world-wide Christian organization founded by William booth,in1865.it giving practical aid and spiritual comfort to the poor and needy.救世军。

67.Comprehensive schools

Comprehensives schools take pupils without reference to ability or aptitude and provide a wide-ranging secondary education for all or most of the children in a district.

68.Reuters

It was founded in 1851 by the German, Julius Reuter. It is now a publicly owned company, employing over 11000 staff in 80 countries. It has more than 1300 staff journalists and photographers.

69.grant-maintained(GM)Schools有公费保证的学校

they are state schools outside local education authority control.there are no tuition fees at these schools.由国家学校以外的当地教育机构控制,在这些学校是免费的。

70.eleven-plus

an examination formerly used to select school pupils at about,the age of 11 for an appropriate secondary education.一种考试对11岁孩子选择适当的中等教育。

71.BBC

the british broadcasting corporation,the UK organization responsible for making an transmitting of its own television and radio programs.

72.Rupert murdoch

australian-born us newspaper publisher.he became a us citizen in 1985.

73.the british museum

the national museum of archaeology and ethnography in Bloomsbury ,London.考古学和人种学。

74.Pilgrims Thanksgiving Day

The Pilgrims in 1620, 201 of them sailed to the New World in a ship called Mayflower. The first winter after their arrival was very cold and when spring came, half of them were dead. Then the Indians came to their help and taught them how to grow corn. They had a good harvest that year. So they invited the Indians and held the first Thanksgiving celebration in America to give thanks to God.

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