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托福考试
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2017年托福考试阅读题目详细解析(27)

来源:考试吧 2017-05-05 15:10:40 考试吧:中国教育培训第一门户 模拟考场
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  青蛙的两种鸣叫方式,一种音量小而简单,一种音量大而复杂。雌性青蛙更喜欢后者,两个科学家对此进行对照实验,并发现能够推广。同时也说到鸣叫方式和捕食者之间的关系。

  生物类。一种青蛙的两种鸣叫方式。一种音量小而简单,一种音量大而复杂。雌性青蛙更喜欢复杂的那种,提到了两个科学家为此做的对照试验,发现这一情况可以推广化。同时也讲了鸣叫方式和捕食者的关系。

  参考练习:

  TPO 11:Begging by Nestlings

  知识拓展:

  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frog_hearing_and_communication

  Frog hearing and communication

  From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

  Frogs and toads produce a rich variety of sounds, calls, and songs during their courtship and mating rituals. The callers, usually males, make stereotyped sounds in order to advertise their location, their mating readiness and their willingness to defend their territory; listeners respond to the calls by return calling, by approach, and by going silent. These responses have been shown to be important for species recognition, mate assessment, and localization. Beginning with the pioneering experiments of Robert Capranica in the 1930s using playback techniques with normal and synthetic calls, behavioral biologists and neurobiologists have teamed up to use frogs and toads as a model system for understanding the auditory function and evolution. It is now considered an important example of the neural basis of animal behavior, because of the simplicity of the sounds, the relative ease with which neurophysiological recordings can be made from the auditory nerve, and the reliability of localization behavior. Acoustic communication is essential for the frog's survival in both territorial defense and in localization and attraction of mates. Sounds from frogs travel through the air, through water, and through the substrate. The neural basis of communication and audition gives insights into the science of sound applied to human communication.

  Sound communication Behavioral ecologyFrogs are more often heard than seen, and other frogs (and researchers) rely on their calls to identify them. Depending on the region that the frog lives in, certain times of the year are better for breeding than others, and frogs may live away from the best breeding grounds when it is not the species’ mating season. During the breeding season, they congregate to the best breeding site and compete for call time and recognition. Species that have a narrow mating season due to ponds that dry up have the most vigina calls.]

  Calling strategy Male-male competitionIn many frog species only males call. Each species has a distinct call, though even among the same species, different dialects are found in different regions. Although humans cannot detect the differences in dialects, frogs distinguish between regional dialects. For example, male bullfrogs can recognize the calls of their direct territorial neighbors. By ignoring the calls of these neighbors, they save energy, and only vocalize aggressively with to an intruder’s call. In this way, calls establish territories, but they also attract females.[2] Males may have a solitary call for times when there is no competition that uses less energy. During other times, when a frog must compete with hundreds or thousands of other frogs to be heard, together they perform a chorus call where each frog calls in turn, successively. The most important feature of the chorus is the shared pattern. Through this pattern, few individuals calls are drowned out. One frog’s call may be dominant and trigger the calls of the responding frogs in symphony. Interestingly, calling is linked to physical size and females may be attracted to more vigorous calls.[2] Frogs in the same region chorus within their species and between different species. Frogs of the same species will retune their frequency so it is distinct from other frogs of the same species. Different species of frogs living in the same region have more dramatically different call frequencies.[3] The frequency and durations of different species' calls vary similarly to the preference of that species' females. The neural circuity of females of different species varies.

  Male-female interactions Like the males, females can distinguish the minute differences between individual frogs. However, males and females are attuned to different parts of the advertisement call. For example, males of the onomatopoeically named coqui species are more attuned to the low frequency co part of the call, whereas females are more attuned to the high frequency qui.[4] In fact, the order of the parts does not matter. Similarly, for females of the Tungara species, the female basilar papilla is biased towards a lower-than-average “chuck” portion of a male call.[5] Experiments that measure the vocal responses and approaches shows these attenuations.

  Mode of sound communication

  Calls are often sent through the air, but other mediums have been discovered. Some species call while they are under water and the sound travels through the water. This is adaptive in a region with many species competing for air time. Narins has found female frog species that use solid surfaces, such as blades of grass and logs, upon which they tap rhythmically to attract mates. Also, Feng has found that some species of frogs use ultrasound.

  Sound production

  The smallest frogs must consume lots of energy to produce calls. In addition, vocalizing muscles can make up 15% of a male spring peeper’s body mass, while the same muscles are only 3% of females. Frogs produce sound from the air sac below their mouth that from the outside, is seen to inflate and deflate. Air from the lungs is channeled to the air sac, which resonates to make the sound louder. The larynx is larger and more developed in males, though not significantly different from females.[5]

  Sound localization Biologists[who?] believed that frogs ears are placed too close together to localize sound accurately. Frogs cannot hear short, high frequency sounds. Sound is localized by the time difference when the sound reaches each ear. The “vibration spot” near the lungs vibrates in response to sound, and may be used as an additional measure to localize from.[2]

  Applications of frog neuroethology Dr. Feng’s work applies the neuroethology of frog communication to medicine. A recent project on hearing aids is based on how female frogs find their mates. Females must recognize the male they choose by his call. By localizing where his call is coming from she can find him. An additional challenge is that she is localizing his call while listening to the many other frogs in the chorus, and to the noise of the stream and insects. The breeding pond is a very noisy place, and females must distinguish a male’s calls from the other noise. How they recognize the sound pattern of the male they are pursuing from the surrounding noise is similar to how intelligent hearing aids help people hear certain sounds and cancel out others. The underlying neural mechanisms are fast neural oscillations, and synaptic inhibition to cancel out noise. The timing and frequency of the sound also play a part in frog communication and may be used in Feng’s work. He also studies bat echolocation to create intelligent hearing aids. He is also working on cochlear implants.[6]

  See alsoNeuroethology

  Frogs

  Umwelt

  Vision in toads

  Animal echolocation

  ReferencesJump up^ Capranica (1965)

  ^ Jump up to:a b c d Long (1999)

  Jump up^ Narins

  Jump up^ Narins and Capranica (1980)

  ^ Jump up to:a b McClelland, Wilczynski, and Rand

  Jump up^ Feng, 2007

  Notes

  Capranica, Robert R. (1965) The Evoked Vocal Response of the Bullfrog. MIT PRESS, Cambridge, MA. (110p.)

  Albert S. Feng. Neuroscience Program University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. 17 Dec 2007

  Long, Kim. Frogs A Wildlife Handbook. Boulder, Colorado: Johnson Printing, 1999.

  Mundry, KM, and RR Capranica. "Correlation between auditory evoked responses in the thalamus and species-specific call characteristics. I Rana catesbeiana." Journal of Comp Physiology 160(1987): (4):477-89.

  McClelland,BE., W. Wilczynski, and AS. Rand. Department of Psychology, University of Texas, Sexual dimorphism and species differences in the neurophysiology and morphology of the acoustic communication system of two neotropical hylids.

  Narins, PM, and RR Capranica. "Neural adaptations for processing the two-note call of the Puerto Rican treefrog, Eleutherodactylus coqui." Brain Behavioral Evolution 17(1)(1980): 48-66.

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