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2012ACCA《P2公司报告》基础课程讲义(2)

考试吧整理2012年ACCA考试《P2公司报告》讲义辅导,给广大考友参考,望广大考友取得优异的成绩!

  Part A  REGULATORY AND ETHICAL FRAMEWORK

  Financial reporting framework

  - Corporate governance: is the system by which companies are directed and controlled (Cadbury Report).

  - Conceptual framework

  The IASB’s Framework provides the backbone of the IASB‘s conceptual framework. IASs were based on the IASB Framework.

  A conceptual framework is a statement of generally accepted theoretical principles which form the frame of reference for financial reporting. These theoretical principles provide the basis for the development of new accounting standards and for the evaluation of those already in existence.

  . Advantages and disadvantages of a conceptual framework

  . Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP)

  A conceptual framework for financial reporting can be defined as an attempt to codify existing GAAP in order to reappraise current accounting standards and to produce new standards.

  The IASB’s framework: consists of seven sections

  - The objective of financial statements

  - Underlying assumptions

  - Qualitative characteristics of financial statements

  - The elements of financial statements

  - Recognition of the elements of financial statements

  - Measurement of the elements of financial statements

  - Concepts of capital and capital maintenance

  (**)

  Qualitative characteristics:

  Fundamental qualitative characteristics are:

  (a)Relevance: predictive value or confirmatory value

  (b)Faithful representation: information must be complete, neutral and free from material error (replacing ‘reliability)

  Enhancing qualitative characteristics are:

  (a)Comparability: achieved by consistency in use of the same accounting policies

  (b)Verifiability: credibility, assurance that information faithfully represents the economic phenomena

  (c)Timeliness: information is provided before it loses the capacity to influence decisions

  (d)Understandability: for users who have a reasonable knowledge of business and economic activities and who are able to read a financial report; information should not be excluded on the grounds that it may be too complex/difficult for some users to understand. Enhanced when information is classified, characterized and presented clearly and concisely.

  Revenue recognition

  Accruals accounting is based on the matching of costs with the revenue they generate.

  IAS 18 Revenue is concerned with the recognition of revenues arising from fairly common transactions.

  - The sale of goods

  - The rendering of services

  - The use by others of enterprise assets yielding interest, royalties and dividends

  Generally revenue is recognized when the entity has transferred to the buyer the significant risks and rewards of ownership and when the revenue can be measured reliably.

  Interest, royalties and dividends are included as income because they arise from the use of an entity’s assets by other parties.

  Interest is the charge for the use of cash or cash equivalents or amounts due to the entity.

  Royalties are charges for the use of non-current assets of the entity, e.g. patents, computer software and trademarks.

  Dividends are distributions of profit to holders of equity investments, in proportion with their holdings, of each relevant class of capital.

  - Definition:

  Revenue:is the gross inflow of economic benefits during the period arising in the course of the ordinary activities of an enterprise when those inflows result in increases in equity, other than increases relating to contributions from equity participants.

  Ie, Revenue does not include sales taxes, value added taxes or goods and service taxes which are only collected for third parties.

  Fair value: is the amount for which an asset could be exchanged, or a liability settled, between knowledgeable, willing parties in an arm’s length transaction.

  Sale of goods:

  Ie. Where revenue and expenses cannot be estimated reliably, then revenue cannot be recognized, any consideration which has already been received is treated as a liability.

  Rendering of services:

  Revenue is recognized only to the extent of the expenses recognized that are recoverable.

  If the costs are not likely to be reimbursed, then they must be recognized as an expense.

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