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考试必备:国务院新闻办公室文件:中国核应急(双语5)

来源:考试吧 2016-03-01 14:37:25 考试吧:中国教育培训第一门户 模拟考场
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  VI. Nuclear Emergency Preparedness Exercises,Drills, Training and Public Communication

  核应急演习演练、培训与公众沟通

  China attaches great importance to nuclearemergency preparedness exercises, drills, trainingand public communication, and continuous effortshave been made to enhance the capabilities ofnuclear emergency preparedness organizations atvarious levels to cope with nuclear accidents,popularize knowledge of nuclear safety andemergency preparedness, create an environment conducive to facilitating nuclear energydevelopment and build society-wide confidence in the country's nuclear energy sector.

  中国高度重视核应急演习演练,切实加强专业培训,注重公众沟通,不断提高各级核应急组织应对处置严重核事故的能力水平,普及社会公众核安全应急知识,营造促进核能发展良好环境,树立全社会对发展核能事业信心。

  Organizing nuclear emergency preparedness exercises. The policies and principles, organization,formats, classifications, frequency, safeguard preparation and implementation proceduresfor China's nuclear emergency preparedness have been clearly defined in such documents asRegulations on Emergency Measures for Nuclear Accidents at Nuclear Power Plants, ContingencyMeasures for Unexpected Events, Guideline on Emergency Exercises for Unexpected Events andRegulations on Nuclear Emergency Preparedness Exercises. To cater to the needs of nuclearenergy development, national-level nuclear emergency preparedness joint exercises shall beconducted on a regular basis; provincial-level on-site and off-site joint exercises for nuclearemergency preparedness shall be conducted once every two to four years by the relevantprovinces (autonomous regions or centrally administered municipalities); operators of nuclearinstallations shall conduct comprehensive exercises once every two years and specialexercises for different purposes every year, with higher frequency for those which have threeor more generating units. Prior to the initial fuel loading, an on-site and off-site joint exerciseshall be organized by the provincial-level nuclear emergency management organizationwhere the relevant nuclear power plant is located. National-level nuclear emergency jointexercises with the code names "Shendun-2009" and "Shendun-2015" have been conducted andobserved by officials and experts from Japan, ROK, France, Pakistan and the IAEA, involving theparticipation of about 6,000 persons on the two occasions.

  组织实施核应急演习。发布《核电厂核事故应急管理条例》《突发事件应急预案管理办法》《突发事件应急演练指南》《核应急演习管理规定》等规章,明确规定国家核应急演习方针原则、组织机构、内容形式、分类频次、保障准备、实施程序等。适应核能发展需要,定期举行全国性核应急联合演习;相关省(区、市)每2年至4年举行一次本级场内场外核应急联合演习;核设施营运单位每2年组织一次综合演习,每年组织多种专项演习,拥有3台以上运行机组的演习频度适当增加;核电站首次装投料前,所在地省级核应急管理机构组织场内场外联合演习。近年来,先后组织代号为"神盾—2009""神盾—2015"的国家核应急联合演习,参演规模近6000人,日本、韩国、法国、巴基斯坦、国际原子能机构等派出官员、专家观摩。

  Establishing a three-level nuclear emergency preparedness training system. The state nuclearemergency preparedness management organization shall be in charge of training for nation-wide nuclear emergency preparedness management personnel; nuclear emergencypreparedness management organizations at the provincial (regional and municipal) level shallbe in charge of training for nuclear emergency preparedness personnel within their respectivejurisdictions; operators of nuclear installations shall be in charge of providing professionalskills training for their own staff in the field of nuclear emergency preparedness. Since theFukushima accident, China has organized more than 110 training sessions for different levelsof nuclear emergency preparedness organizations, attended by a total of 10,000 people. China'snuclear emergency preparedness management personnel and technical professionals have allattended nuclear emergency preparedness trainings of different levels and disciplines.

  建立三级核应急培训制度。国家核应急管理机构负责全国核应急管理人员培训,省(区、市)核应急管理机构负责本行政区域内核应急人员培训,核设施营运单位负责本单位核应急工作人员专业技术培训。福岛核事故以来,中国各级举办培训班110多期,培训近万人次。目前,中国核应急管理人员、专业技术人员均参加过不同级别、专业的培训。

  Reinforcing public communication and information disclosure about nuclear emergencypreparedness. China attaches great importance to public communication and informationdisclosure regarding nuclear emergency preparedness by developing relevant regulations onthe principles of transparency, objectivity, trustworthiness and scientific accuracy. Eachlevel of nuclear emergency preparedness organization has established a special nuclearemergency preparedness publicity team to publicize national policies on nuclear energy,nuclear safety and nuclear emergency preparedness to the public and to enhancetransparency of nuclear energy development to ensure the public's right to supervise nuclearsafety and access to information on nuclear emergency preparedness and response. Since2013 a number of nationwide nuclear emergency preparedness publicity activities with thetheme "Joining Efforts to Establish Defense on Nuclear Emergency and for Nuclear Safety, andto Foster the Scientific Development of Nuclear EnergySector" have been held, arousingextensive attention both at home and abroad. In January 2015 publicity activities targetingdomestic and foreign audiences were successively conducted by nuclear-relatedorganizations to mark the 60th anniversary of the launch of China's nuclear industry. InDecember 2015 the domestic and foreign media were invited to visit Chinese nuclear powerenterprises for the well-received campaign "Boosting Nuclear Energy Development for the OneBelt and One Road Initiative," showcasing to Chinese audience the advanced nature of China'snuclear power technology, the safety and reliability of nuclear power, standardization ofnuclear power management and adequacy of nuclear emergency preparedness, producingpositive social repercussions. Nuclear-related enterprises, universities and colleges, andrelevant organizations have conducted a variety of publicity activities in relation to thepopularization of nuclear-related scientific knowledge in a bid to foster an atmosphereconducive to the safe and efficient development of nuclear energy.

  加强核应急公众沟通与信息发布。中国高度重视核应急公众沟通和信息发布,制定相关规定,明确公开透明、客观真实、权威可信、科学通俗的工作原则。各级核应急组织建立专门的核应急宣传队伍,适时向全社会宣传国家核能政策、核安全政策、核应急政策,增加核能发展透明度,确保公众享有核安全监督权、核应急准备与响应知情权。2013年以来,以"共筑核应急核安全防线、共促核能事业科学发展"为主题,多次组织全国范围核应急宣传活动,国内外受众面达到10亿人次。2015年1月,利用中国核工业创建60周年契机,开展一系列面向国内外的宣传活动。2015年12月,组织媒体走进中国核电企业,开展"助推核能发展、助力‘一带一路'"采访活动,向国内外集中展示中国核电技术先进性、核电安全可靠性、核电管理规范性、核应急准备充分性,产生了积极社会反响。各涉核企业、大专院校和有关团体还以各种形式开展涉核科普宣传活动,努力营造安全高效发展核能的良好氛围。

  As the Hong Kong and Macao special administrative regions (SAR) are adjacent to GuangdongProvince, the public in Hong Kong and Macao pay close attention to the nuclear energydevelopment in China's mainland. Since 1992 Guangdong Province and the Hong Kong SARhave reached consensus on a number of issues in relation to nuclear emergency preparednessassociated with the Daya Bay and Ling Ao nuclear power plants in Guangdong. The statenuclear emergency management organ has, on more than one occasion, organized promotionalactivities in conjunction with Guangdong Province and the Hong Kong SAR to further enrichthe contents of their collaborative mechanism on nuclear emergency preparedness, refinethe communication platform for nuclear emergency preparedness between Guangdong andHong Kong, and respond to public concerns in a timely manner to allay any misgivings. Therelevant departments of the central government have held special training sessions focusing onvarious disciplines in conjunction with the departments concerned of Hong Kong and MacaoSAR governments with a view to raising the professional level of the local public, thereforecontributing positively to maintaining the prosperity and stability of both Hong Kong andMacao.

  香港特别行政区、澳门特别行政区毗邻广东省,特区公众和舆论关注内地核能发展。1992年以来,粤港双方针对广东大亚湾和岭澳核电站核应急事宜达成多项共识。国家核应急管理机构多次与广东省、香港特别行政区政府组织宣介会,不断充实粤港核应急合作机制内容,完善粤港核应急交流平台,及时回应公众关切,消除疑虑。中央政府有关部门还有针对性地与港澳地区相关部门联合开展各领域专业培训,提高当地人员专业水平,为保持香港、澳门繁荣稳定作出积极贡献。

  As the safe use of nuclear energy is a major issue bearing on the safety of both life andproperty of people across the Taiwan Straits, both sides of the Straits lay great store by it. InOctober 2011 the Association for Relations across the Taiwan Straits and Straits ExchangeFoundation signed the Cross-straits Nuclear Power Safety Cooperation Agreement. Under theframework of this agreement, a communication mechanism has been put in place betweenthe two sides across the Straits on nuclear emergency matters, and positive achievements havereaped in expanded exchange and cooperation in such areas as regulations and standardsconcerning nuclear power safety, emergency reporting on nuclear power plant accidents,environmental radiation monitoring for nuclear power plants, and emergency response andpreparations for nuclear power plant accidents.

  核能安全利用是关系台湾海峡两岸人民生命财产安全的大事,两岸双方对此高度重视。2011年10月,海协会与台湾海基会签署《海峡两岸核电安全合作协议》。在该协议框架下,两岸建立核应急事务联系机制,在核电安全法规与标准、核电厂事故紧急通报、核电厂环境辐射监测、核电厂事故紧急应变及准备等领域不断拓展交流与合作,取得积极成效。

  VII. Scientific and Technological Innovations in Nuclear Emergency Preparedness

  七、核应急科技创新

  China has worked out a national plan for nuclear emergency preparedness work, which hasclearly defined the targets, mechanism, training of professionals, main tasks and safeguardmeasures for scientific and technological innovation in the field of nuclear emergencypreparedness. New achievements have been made, and some of them have even reached theinternational advanced level.

  中国制定国家核应急工作规划,明确核应急领域科技创新目标要求、体制机制、人才建设、主要任务、保障措施等,取得一批科技创新成果,部分成果达到国际先进水平。

  Development of nuclear accident consequence evaluation and decision-making supportsystem. By insisting on the combination of technology introduction and self-reliantinnovations, China's relevant universities and R&D institutes have made achievements insuch technological areas as accident source term estimation, wind field diagnosis and forecast,airborne radioactive material dispersion, radioactive material dispersion in water bodies, nuclearradiation medicine emergency classification and treatment, radioactive dose estimation,etc., which have provided technical support for the state in decision making related tonational nuclear emergency preparedness.

  核事故后果评价与决策支持系统开发。坚持技术引进与自主创新相结合,中国有关院校和科研院所,在事故源项估算、风场诊断与预报、气载放射性扩散、水体放射性扩散、核辐射医学应急分类及救援、放射性剂量估算等技术领域取得成果,为国家核应急决策提供了技术支持。

  Basic research in nuclear emergency preparedness. Research in nuclear emergencypreparedness technologies and management for third and fourth generation of nuclear powertechnologies, such as HPR1000, AP1000 (US Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor), EPR(European Pressurized Water Reactor), High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors and fast reactorshas been carried out. Studies are continuing on important subjects such as simultaneouscommon-mode failure for multiple units, severe accident source term analysis for inlandnuclear power plants, inter-regional nuclear emergency preparedness, nuclear fuel cycle facilityemergency preparedness and emergency response to nuclear and radiological terrorist attacks,and some achievements have been made, uplifting as a whole the level of China's basictechnologies concerning nuclear emergency preparedness.

  核应急基础技术研究。开展"华龙一号"反应堆、AP1000反应堆(美国先进压水堆)、EPR反应堆(欧洲压水堆)、高温气冷堆、快堆等三代、四代核电技术反应堆核应急技术与管理研究。针对多机组同时出现共模事故、内陆核电站严重事故源项分析、跨地区核应急准备、核燃料循环设施应急准备、核与辐射恐怖袭击事件应急处置等重大课题,持续开展研究,取得一批成果,促进了中国核应急基础技术水平的整体增强。

  Research and development of nuclear emergency special equipment. Priority is given to theR&D (research and development) and SI (system integration) of equipment for nuclearemergency radiation monitoring, radiation protection, medical treatment anddecontamination. Independently developed equipment includes vehicle (vessel)-mounteddetection equipment, aviation radiation monitoring system, radiation monitoring andaccident response robots and vehicle (vessel)-mounted nuclear emergency commandsystem, and nuclear emergency medical assorting and monitoring platform and medicalsupport system. Each level of nuclear emergency rescue team is equipped with such equipmentand systems. All gate-frame walk-through radiation detectors used by China Customs aredeveloped by domestic enterprises.

  核应急专用装备研发。重点推进核应急辐射监测、辐射防护、医学救援、去污洗消等装备研发和系统集成。自主研制车(船)载巡测设备、航空辐射监测系统、辐射监测与事故响应机器人等装备设备,以及车(船)载核应急指挥系统、核应急医学分类及监测平台、医疗支援系统等,并已装备各级核应急救援队。中国海关使用的门户式辐射探测设备全部由国内企业自主研发制造。

  Research in nuclear emergency preparedness information technology. Studies on thestandardization of nuclear emergency preparedness data collection and transfer have beenconducted, and a nationwide nuclear emergency preparedness resources management systemhas been established and efforts are constantly made to improve it. Development of a nuclearemergency preparedness information system, innovative modularization of nuclear emergencypreparedness plan, automation of response process, visualization of organization andcommand and auxiliary scientific decision-making have led to the integration of routinemanagement with emergency response, which has also helped enhance nuclear emergencypreparedness response capabilities and organizational efficiency.

  核应急信息化技术研究。开展核应急数据采集和传输标准化研究,建立健全全国核应急资源管理系统。研发核应急指挥信息化系统,创新核应急预案模块化、响应流程智能化、组织指挥可视化、辅助决策科学化等技术,实现日常管理与应急响应一体化,提高了核应急响应能力和组织指挥效率。

  Research in nuclear emergency preparedness medical treatment technology. Research on thetechnology of diagnosis and treatment for acute radiation injuries has been carried out, andguidelines for diagnosis, treatment and rescue for acute radiation injuries have beendeveloped. Key technical and promotional application research in unexpected nuclearradiation events has resulted in the development of methods for rapid biological doseassessment for nuclear radiation accidents applicable for the general public, which hashelped optimize non-myeloablative stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) combinedtransplantation treatment for severe and extremely severe bone marrow acute radiationpatients. A number of breakthroughs in the treatment of radiation diseases have beenachieved, leading to a reduction of casualties of nuclear radiation accidents to the maximumextent. With primary and clinical research on the treatment of radiation injuries by use ofmesenchymal stem cells, a new therapy using transplantation of combined MSC andhematopoietic stem cells for severe radiation sickness has been created. The researchachievement "Establishment and Application to Treat Radiation Diseases by Using SomaticStem Cells" won a first prize for national science and technology improvement. A "three-levelhandling and four-level treatment" systemized nuclear emergency medical rescue capabilitiesdevelopment model has been developed by China's military medical research organizations.

  核应急医疗救治技术研究。开展急性放射损伤诊治等技术研究,制定急性放射损伤诊断与治疗方案和救治指南。开展核辐射突发事件医学应急关键技术研究及其推广应用研究,研制适用于广大人群的核辐射事故生物剂量快速估算方法,优化重度、极重度急性骨髓型放射病患者的非清髓造血干细胞、间充质干细胞(MSC)联合移植救治模式,在放射病治疗中实现多项突破,以最大程度减少核辐射事故引起的人员伤亡。持续开展系统的间充质干细胞治疗核辐射损伤的基础与临床研究,创建了MSC联合造血干细胞治疗重度放射病的治疗新方案,其研究成果"成体干细胞救治放射损伤新技术的建立与应用"项目获得该领域首个国家科技进步一等奖。军队医疗机构研究创建了"三级处置、四级救治"体系化核应急医学应急救援能力建设模式。

  Research in public risk communication and psychological assistance. Research in masspsychological assistance techniques under circumstances of unexpected event (accident)has been conducted, and relevant psychological intervention models have beenestablished, and countermeasures, criteria and implementation guidelines have beenproposed. In view of the characteristics of nuclear radiation, Q&A publications inrelation to nuclear accident protection and applied books on medical countermeasures in caseof nuclear and radiological accidents geared toward the public have been compiled.

  公众风险沟通和心理援助研究。开展核突发事件(事故)情况下大范围公众群体危机心理援助技术研究,构建相关心理干预模型,提出应对预案、标准和实施指南。针对核辐射特点,研究编制核事故公众防护问与答、核与辐射事故医学应急等面向社会公众的应用丛书。

  Innovative research in nuclear emergency environmental meteorology. A numericalprediction system of China's meteorological environmental emergency response is beingdeveloped and improved. Following the upgrading of the meteorological service system fornuclear and hazardous chemicals leakage and improvement of atmospheric dispersionmodeling by way of technology import and self-reliant R&D, the global mode resolutionhas been enhanced to 30km from about 85km, and medium-scale model resolution has beenenhanced to 10km from 15km, realizing a more detailed and precise simulation andprediction of pollutant dispersion.

  核应急环境气象创新性研究。持续研发并建设完善中国气象环境应急响应数值预报业务系统。通过技术引进和自主研发,改进升级核及危险化学品泄漏气象服务系统,完成大气扩散模式的精细化改进,全球模式分辨率由原来的85千米左右提高到30千米,中尺度区域模式分辨率由15千米提高到10千米,实现了对污染物扩散更加精细化模拟和预报。

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