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托福考试
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托福口语做笔记技巧:要抓住材料的主题

  众所周知,为了模拟北美大学课堂的学术气氛和学生在校园生活的方方面面,新托福考试的口语部分首次允许考生做课堂笔记(笔记考完要上交,但笔记不算分)、并要求考生能够发表自己的意见和看法,而且必须具备对教授推荐的参考书写出读书报告、阐明自己观点的能力以及其他处理校园生活中可能遇到的各种情况的能力。YeeaooBox根据众多网友的口语答题情况,对新托福口语考试(包括独立口语任务和综合口语任务)中如何做笔记的问题做深人地分析和探讨。

  Note-taking in the Independent Task

  该部分要求考生就某一自己熟悉的话题阐述自己的观点。一类问题是自由回答间题(Free-choice Response),如:If you could have any job in the world, what would it be? Use details to support your. response;另一类是选择类问题(Paired-choice Response),如:Do you like to try new kinds of food or eat the same kind of food all the time? Use details and examples to support your response,准备时间为15秒,回答问题时间为45秒。问题会被朗读出来,且同时出现在屏幕上。考生可以不用理会电脑的朗读,迅速阅读完问题。这样可以争取大概5秒,那么在这大约20秒内,考生可在草稿纸上迅速记下自己所要表达的关键信息。这里记笔记的方法为“TST表格”。TST ( Topic-Supporting ideas--Transitions)意思是考生须在草稿纸上用一到两个词写下欲表达的Topic(主题),Supporting ideas(分论点)和Transitions(信号词)。下面试举一例:

  Question:

  Where would you want to be professionally in ten years? Use details to support your response.

  考生应迅速在纸上写下“own bus...”、“master”、“work com...”、“start”等信息见以下TST( Topic—Supporting ideas—Transitions )表格。

  Topic statement: own bus... (I would like to own my own business) Supporting ideas: ( How I will work toward owning my business)

  * master (Will get master's in business )

  * work com... (Will work in company while planning my business)

  * start (Will start my own business when I am ready)

  Transitions: 10 next because 3 within 10 y (可用y代替 years)

  Sample Answer

  In ten years I would like to win an import business of my own. Next year, I will be starting a master's program in business with a specialization in entrepreneurship. I will be getting this degree because I hope to start my own business and make it successful some day. After I finish my master's degree three years from now, I will most likely take a position in another company for a few years to make some money and to spend some time planning my own business. Within ten years, I hope to own my own company and be on the way to making it a success.

  再举一例:

  Question:

  Sometimes students have to write papers. Sometimes they have to give oral presentations. Which activity do you think is better for students, and why? Include details and examples in your explanation.

  考生应迅速在纸上写下“pap”、“strong read write exams”、“more time think deeply”等信息。见以下TST( Topic—Supporting ideas—Transitions )表格::

  Topic: pap (writing papers is better for students) Supporting ideas: (Why writing papers is better)

  * strong read write exams (need strong writing skills for reading and writing and prepare for exams)

  * more time think deeply (show understanding for more time to explain and think deeply)

  Transitions: firstly because, so also

  Sample Answer

  I think writing papers is better for students. Firstly we need to develop strong writing skills. We go to school mainly to learn reading and writing, so we need a lot of practice. Examinations require a lot of writing, so writing papers is good reparation. Also, I think writing is a better way to show that I understand. When I write a paper, I can think deeply because I have more time to explain my ideas.

  补充练习:

  1. Describe a place that you consider to be beautiful. Explain why certain qualities of this place make it beautiful. Include details and examples to support your explanation.

  2. Some people relax by staying home. Others relax by going out. Which type of relaxation is better for your and why? Include details and examples in your explanation.-

  3. Describe an occasion when you were surprised. What happened to you, and why did you feel surprised? Include details and examples in your explanation.

  4. Some students prepare for tests by studying alone. Others prepare for tests by studying with other students or a tutor. Which study method do you think is better, and why? Include details and examples in your explanation.

  5.What type of home would you like to live in? Describe the characteristics of such a home and explain why you would like to live there. Include details and examples in your explanation.

  6. Some people exercise early in the morning. Others exercise in the afternoon or evening. Which time of day do you think is better for exercising and why? Include details and examples in your explanation.

  Note-taking in the Integrated Tasks

  1. Reading—Listening—Speaking

  第3题和第4题以试题中的阅读和听力材料为基础,要求考生回答相关问题。即Reading-Listening-Speaking,具体步骤是首先要求考生在45秒内阅读一篇短文,一般只含一个段落,随后短文隐去,播放一段与短文相关的对话或课堂演讲,其长度大约为1分半钟(比listening section中的材料篇幅要短)。最后,要求考生根据先前阅读的短文和所听到的材料回答相关问题,考生有30秒钟的准备时间,然后进行60秒钟的回答。而第5题和第6题要求考生先听一段听力材料,然后回答相关问题。即Listening-Speaking,听力材料通常有一段是情景对话,另一段是课堂演讲,其长度大约为1分半钟。

  考生有20秒钟的准备时间,之后进行60秒钟的回答。在综合口语任务里,你所需要记笔记的内容就是在读短文和听材料的过程中记下材料中的“main points”、“examples”、“reasons”等等。.而是否能很快识别“信号词”(Signal Words)成为其中的关键。“信号词”(Signal Words或Transitions)是我们用来“追踪”说话人的思路的词汇,它就像“路标”一样指引着旅行者的方向。有了信号词,我们就知道说话人何时要举例子,何时要下结论,何时要解释原因等等。

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