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托福考试
您现在的位置: 考试吧 > 托福考试 > 历年真题 > 托福阅读 > 正文

2015年12月13日托福阅读答案解析[1]

来源:考试吧 2015-12-24 11:14:19 考试吧:中国教育培训第一门户 模拟考场
考试吧为广大考生整理“2015年12月13日托福阅读答案解析[1]”,希望对大家有所帮助,祝大家备考顺利!

  12月13日托福阅读词汇题:

  Obviously=clearly

  Widespread=common

  Dense=thick

  Thus=consequently

  resultant

  Shallow=small

  depth

  exercise

  Profound=very strong

  Emergence=rise

  Tactic=strategy

  Adjacent to=near to

  Parallel=match

  12月13日托福阅读第一篇

  题材划分: 生物类

  主要内容:板块运动可以改变生物多样性,提到生物区的划分,少于百分之二十的物种相似度就是不同的区越多说明那里的多样性越高。比如板块分开的时候,多样性增加,反之亦然。一个山脉可以把原本的湿润风给挡了,就变成沙漠不适合生长了。或者一个障碍的形成可以把本来的一个物种分成两个,一南一北,等到在合并的时候,发现北部的可以到南部生活,但南部的很少到北部生活。

  相似TPO练习推荐

  TPO31- Speciation in Geographically Isolated Populations

  相关背景知识:

  Speciation is the evolutionary process by which new biological species arise. The biologist Orator F. Cook was the first to coin the term 'speciation' for the splitting of lineages or "cladogenesis," as opposed to "anagenesis" or "phyletic evolution" occurring within lineages. Charles Darwin was the first to describe the role of natural selection in speciation.There is research comparing the intensity of sexual selection in different clades with their number of species.

  There are four geographic modes of speciation in nature, based on the extent to which speciating populations are isolated from one another: allopatric, peripatric, parapatric, and sympatric. Speciation may also be induced artificially, through animal husbandry, agriculture, or laboratory experiments. Whether genetic drift is a minor or major contributor to speciation is the subject matter of much ongoing discussion.

  All forms of natural speciation have taken place over the course of evolution; however, debate persists as to the relative importance of each mechanism in driving biodiversity.

  One example of natural speciation is the diversity of the three-spined stickleback, a marine fish that, after the last glacial period, has undergone speciation into new freshwater colonies in isolated lakes and streams. Over an estimated 10,000 generations, the sticklebacks show structural differences that are greater than those seeen between different genera of fish including variations in fins, changes in the number or size of their bony plates, variable jaw structure, and color differences.

  During allopatric speciation, a population splits into two geographically isolated populations (for example, by habitat fragmentation due to geographical change such as mountain formation). The isolated populations then undergo genotypic and/or phenotypic divergence as: (a) they become subjected to dissimilar selective pressures; (b) they independently undergo genetic drift; (c) different mutations arise in the two populations. When the populations come back into contact, they have evolved such that they are reproductively isolated and are no longer capable of exchanging genes. Island genetics is the term associated with the tendency of small, isolated genetic pools to produce unusual traits. Examples include insular dwarfism and the radical changes among certain famous island chains, for example on Komodo. The Galápagos Islands are particularly famous for their influence on Charles Darwin. During his five weeks there he heard that Galápagos tortoises could be identified by island, and noticed that finches differed from one island to another, but it was only nine months later that he reflected that such facts could show that species were changeable. When he returned to England, his speculation on evolution deepened after experts informed him that these were separate species, not just varieties, and famously that other differing Galápagos birds were all species of finches. Though the finches were less important for Darwin, more recent research has shown the birds now known as Darwin's finches to be a classic case of adaptive evolutionary radiation.

 

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文章责编:liyuanyuan566  
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