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新GRE写作素材收集 重要备考资料6

来源:考试吧 2013-11-29 15:25:11 考试吧:中国教育培训第一门户 模拟考场
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  掌权者的文化

  The idea of unmarked categories originated in feminism. The theory analyzes the culture of the powerful. The powerful comprise those people in society with easy access to resources, those who can exercise power without considering their actions. For the powerful, their culture seems obvious; for the powerless, on the other hand, it remains out of reach, élite and expensive.

  The unmarked category can form the identifying mark of the powerful. The unmarked category becomes the standard against which to measure everything else. For most Western readers, it is posited that if a protagonist?s race is not indicated, it will be assumed by the reader that the protagonist is Caucasian; if a sexual identity is not indicated, it will be assumed by the reader that the protagonist is heterosexual; if the gender of a body is not indicated, it will be assumed by the reader that it is male; if a disability is not indicated, it will be assumed by the reader that the protagonist is able bodied, just as a set of examples.

  One can often overlook unmarked categories. Whiteness forms an unmarked category not commonly visible to the powerful, as they often fall within this category. The unmarked category becomes the norm, with the other categories relegated to deviant status. Social groups can apply this view of power to race, gender, and disability without modification: the able body is the neutral body; the man is the normal status.

  文化的定义

  Culture is defined here as a set of distinctive material, intellectual, emotional, and spiritual features of a social group, including art, literature, lifestyles, value systems, traditions, rituals, and beliefs. The link between human biology and human behavior and culture is often very close, making it difficult to clearly divide topics into one area or the other; as such, the placement of some subjects may be based primarily on convention.

  Culture consists of values, social norms, and artifacts. A culture?s values define what it holds to be important or ethical. Closely linked are norms, expectations of how people ought to behave, bound by tradition. Artifacts, or material culture, are objects derived from the culture?s values, norms, and understanding of the world.

  The mainstream anthropological view of culture implies that most people experience a strong resistance when reminded that there is an animal as well as a spiritual aspect to human nature.

  不同文化间的关系及其六大研究领域

  An intercultural relation is a relatively new formal field of social science studies. It deals with the ability to get along with others, especially those from a different cultural background.

  Some of the main topics of study are:

  1. Reflection and development of cultural competence

  2. Analyzing different cultural patterns in the world

  3. Finding strategies for adapting

  4. Solving problems in intercultural communication

  5. Teaching social skills to reduce cultural misunderstandings

  6. Studying the lifelong impact of youth and other exchanges

  不同文化间交流的原则

  Intercultural communication principles guide the process of exchanging meaningful and unambiguous information across cultural boundaries, in a way that preserves mutual respect and minimizes antagonism. For these purposes, culture is a shared system of symbols, beliefs, attitudes, values, expectations, and norms of behavior. It refers to coherent groups of people whether resident wholly or partly within state territories, or existing without residence in any particular territory. Hence, these principles may have equal relevance when a tourist seeks help, where two well-established independent corporations attempt to merge their operations, and where politicians attempt to negotiate world peace.

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